bet体育在线网址手机版冥想与瑜伽可以更改我们的大脑行为

By admin in bet体育在线网址手机版 on 2018年10月3日

于抑郁症患者吃,即使是那些早已在服药抗抑郁症药物的病人中,瑜伽也会改进其睡,增加她们之积极,降低自杀之动机。所有标志心情的测量指标都起为是的来头前进。

【12】balloon 激增,膨胀;名词本意是气球

头神经研究者发现,冥想与瑜伽能够增进人们的习,记忆,认知能力和健康之心怀。同时,通过对照相信上帝和免信赖上帝之总人口,经过瑜伽以及冥想后的脑区信号变化,科学家发现了部分明了的区别。

【7】fret about 担忧,焦虑

因同样桩Newberg的研究显示,修女在祈福上帝时,负责控制认知智力的脑部前额皮肤区域为激活,但在无神论的测试者中并未检测到这种激活。

To live safely in a low-rate world, it is time to move beyond a
reliance on central banks. Structural reforms to increase underlying
growth rates have a vital role. But their effects materialise only
slowly and economies need succour now. The most urgent priority is to
enlist【15】 fiscal policy. The main tool for fighting
recessions has to shift from central banks to governments.

以下内容翻译来源《科学》杂志,10月27第358期

【8】topsy-turvy 颠倒混乱

9月28日,由AAAS(美国先进科学促进会)和Dana基金共扶持之《神经科学&社会活动》上,马萨诸塞州总医院精神病系契合研究员,哈佛医学院心理学助理教授Sara
Lazar代表,不仅大脑图像数据在通过冥想训练者和非冥想者之间有差距,而且当那些与心灵感知训练的靶子中,一些切实的转,比如GRE分数得到增强,也会被大脑带来明显的改观。

This is a debate on which both sides get a lot wrong. It is too simple
to say that central bankers are causing the low-rate world; they are
also reacting to it. Real long-term interest rates have been declining
for decades, driven by fundamental factors such as ageing populations
and the integration of savings-rich China into the world economy (see
article). Nor have they been reckless【10】. In most of the rich
world inflation is below the official target. Indeed, in some ways
central banks have not been bold enough. Only now, for example, has
the BoJ explicitly pledged to overshoot【11】 its 2% inflation
target. The Fed still seems anxious to push up rates as soon as it
can.

“这是率先次等经过对证实,yoga能够改变大脑中的切实可行化学介质水平。”Streeter教授说。

【15】enlist sth (in sth) 谋取(帮助)

以检测瑜伽是否正如另外运动能够又好的精益求精心态以及缓解焦虑。研究人员针对通过12周瑜伽运动以及散步的实验者进行了检测。

【11】overshoot 超过,突破

马库斯综合健康研究所研究负责人,托马斯·杰斐逊大学医院的医生,A你的天职Newberg代表,在经验过冥想与祈愿的前提下,脑部扫描显示大脑反应的距离在受试者是否相信上帝。

【19】bog sth/sb down (in sth) 使陷入烂泥,阻碍

“这象征我们的神经有可塑性”,Lazar说,“通过冥想,你的大脑会拥有改变,成长与适应不同心态的能力。”

The low-rate world

They do not naturally crave the limelight【1】. But for the past
decade the attention on central bankers has been
unblinking【2】—and increasingly hostile. During the financial
crisis the Federal Reserve and other central banks were hailed for
their actions: by slashing rates and printing money to buy bonds, they
stopped a shock from becoming a depression. Now their signature
policy, of keeping interest rates low or even negative, is at the
centre of the biggest macroeconomic debate in a generation.

Newberg为操到了通过祈祷,冥想,沉思之后,脑部化学物质水平的更动情况。通过检测受试者祈祷,冥想,沉思之前和后来的头化学水平的变更,显示多巴胺和血清素转运蛋白水平下滑,这将如神经递质化学物质储存于脑中供之后用。

【16】pep up demand 提振需求

Streeter教授说,根据心情跟忧患的各种指标显示,瑜伽组一直以为更好。研究表明,瑜伽一个钟头后,神经活动会发生具体的变,比如精神振奋,脑部宁静,积极性提升以及GABA水平的上升。

【小结】

AAAS和Dana基金会自从2012年上马联名扶持《神经科学&社会活动》,迄今为止已设立过20大多糟活动,参与人口达成3400人次。这项系列活动的目的是啊神经学家提供一个当众平台,分享大脑研究的时髦进展,及其对私家与社会带来的意思。

【4】government bond 政府债券,政府公债

波士顿大学医学院心理与神经学副教授,ChrisStreeter,报告受到标明,大脑中之一律栽控制神经焦虑的化学物质GABA,在yoga训练60分钟后,其值到达极限。

【21】lodestar 北极星星,指导原则

序言:瑜伽不仅可以吃人易得还柔软,有浑圆,更能够转我们的大脑认知能力。美国健身房会涉及多冥想类的学科,也产生那个科学依据。

【14】sell-off 抛售

【20】Keynesianism凯恩斯主义(Keynesian),或称凯恩斯主义经济学(Keynesian
economics),是根据凯恩斯的做《就业、利息及圆通论》(1936年)的沉思根基及之经济理论,主张国家以扩张性的经济政策,通过长需求促进经济提高。(以上释义来自搜狗百科)

Come Yellen and high water

But a growing chorus of critics frets about【7】 the effects of
the low-rate world—a topsy-turvy【8】 place where savers are
charged a fee, where the yields on a large fraction of rich-world
government debt come with a minus sign, and where central banks matter
more than markets in deciding how capital is allocated. Politicians
have waded in【9】. Donald Trump, the Republican presidential
nominee, has accused Janet Yellen, the Fed’s chairman, of keeping
rates low for political reasons. Wolfgang Schäuble, Germany’s finance
minister, blames the European Central Bank for the rise of Alternative
for Germany, a right-wing party.

【1】limelight 公众注意的骨干,本意是石灰光(灯)

But infrastructure spending is not the best way to prop up weak
demand. Ambitious capital projects cannot be turned on and off to
fine-tune the economy. They are a nightmare to plan, take ages to
deliver and risk becoming bogged down【19】 in politics. To be
effective as a countercyclical tool, fiscal policy must mimic the best
features of modern-day monetary policy, whereby independent central
banks can act immediately to loosen or tighten as circumstances
require.

Small-government Keynesianism【20】

Politicians will not—and should not—hand over big budget decisions to
technocrats. Yet there are ways to make fiscal policy less politicised
and more responsive. Independent fiscal councils, like Britain’s
Office for Budget Responsibility, can help depoliticise
public-spending decisions, but they do nothing to speed up fiscal
action. For that, more automaticity is needed, binding some spending
to changes in the economic cycle. The duration and generosity of
unemployment benefits could be linked to the overall joblessness rate
in the economy, for example. Sales taxes, income-tax deductions or
tax-free allowances on saving could similarly vary in line with the
state of the economy, using the unemployment rate as the
lodestar【21】.

To anyone who remembers the 1960s and 1970s, that idea will seem both
familiar and worrying. Back then governments took it for granted that
it was their responsibility to pep up【16】 demand. The problem
was that politicians were good at cutting taxes and increasing
spending to boost the economy, but hopeless at reversing course when
such a boost was no longer needed. Fiscal stimulus became synonymous
with an ever-bigger state. The task today is to find a form of fiscal
policy that can revive the economy in the bad times without
entrenching government in the good.

Yet the evidence is mounting that the distortions caused by the
low-rate world are growing even as the gains are diminishing. The
pension-plan deficits of companies and local governments have
ballooned【12】 because it costs more to honour【13】
future pension promises when interest rates fall (see article). Banks,
which normally make money from the difference between short-term and
long-term rates, struggle when rates are flat or negative. That
impairs their ability to make loans even to the creditworthy.
Unendingly low rates have skewed financial markets, ensuring a big
sell-off【14】 if rates were suddenly to rise. The longer this
goes on, the greater the perils that accumulate.

各国央行并从未特意渴望受到关注(limelight),但在过去之十年里,人们对央行官员们频频关注(the
attention on central bankers has been
unblinking),而且越加怀有敌意。金融危机期间,美联储和另外央行曾削减利率(slashing
rates)、印钱购买债券,从而阻碍了经济萧条(recession)。但如今,保持小利率竟然负利率的国策却遭遇争议。中央首长看,要想提振仍旧疲软之经济现象(prop
up still-weak economies),仍需要利用过宽松货币政策(ultra-loose monetary
policy)。日本银行本周答应以十年期当局公债收益率(government bond
yields)保持以零左右。英国脱欧公投之后(in the wake
of),英国央行以那个要政策利率(policy
rate)降到0.25%,这是300年来的历史最低点。但更为多之批评之望(chorus
of critics)担心(fret
about)低利率环境会招一个倒混乱的(topsy-turvy)世界。政治家们早已强行参与(wade
in)。央行官员之答术并非鲁莽(reckless)之选。央行在少数方面竟然不够大胆(bold
enough)。现在日本央行才保证超越(overshoot)2%的通胀目标。低利率环境会导致市场转。当利率下降时,要兑现未来养老金发放之应允(honour
future pension
promises)就用投入还多本,这造成企业和地方政府的养老金计划赤字激增(balloon)。如果突然加息,必然引发普遍抛售(sell-off)。谋取财政政策的救助(enlist
fiscal
policy)才是当务之急。上世纪60年间与70年间,政府觉得生义务提振需求(pep
up demand)。政治家们擅长通过减税和增加支出的法子提振经济(boost the
economy),但不再用如此的刺激时,指望他们改弦更张则令人失望。投资基础设备(infrastructure)是普普通通之答复方式。为了以防有异常如无论是用(white-elephant)的品种,私营部门一开始即应当与其间。在针对有项目的长提出意见时,专门养老资金为应关心(with
one eye
on)最终的投资者。基础设备项目用多年底履行,还可能为政治因素使停滞不前(bogged
down)。可以将失业率作为指导原则(lodestar),依据经济现象来调整营业税(sales
taxes)、所得税减免(income-tax deductions)或存款免税额(tax-free
allowances on
saving)。当下同等次于经济衰退(downturn)来临时,政治家们许诺承担责任,使财政政策成为强大之火器。现在,政府不应允将没有利率世界归咎为央行官员等(blame
central bankers for),而应帮忙他们。

That means going beyond the standard response to calls for more public
spending: namely, infrastructure investment. To be clear, spending on
productive infrastructure is a good thing. Much of the rich world
could do with new toll roads, railways and airports, and it will never
be cheaper to build them. To manage the risk of
white-elephant【17】 projects, private-sector partners should be
involved from the start. Pension and insurance funds are desperate for
long-lasting assets that will generate the steady income they have
promised to retirees. Specialist pension funds can advise on a
project’s merits, with one eye on【18】 eventually buying the
assets in question.

流淌:本文就供就学交流的故,不代表作者观点。

本期原文选自The Economist 2016-9-24的Leaders板块The low-rate
world,释义来自牛津高阶七版、搜狗百科等资源。如果您吗在学习The Economist,欢迎订阅我之文集The
Economist,一起上交流。英文修习者可以透过学习文中词汇,然后以商论的合法译文回译成英文,再比英文原文进行比,找有差别,以此加强自己之英文水准。

【5】in the wake of 在……之后

【3】ultra-loose monetary policy 超宽松货币政策

【6】policy rate 政策利率

【18】with one eye on sth;have one eye/half eye on sth
做同样桩事时默默注意别一样件事

【10】reckless 鲁莽的,无所顾忌的

【13】honour 信守(承诺)

The central bankers say that ultra-loose monetary policy【3】
remains essential to prop up still-weak economies and hit their
inflation targets. The Bank of Japan (BoJ) this week promised to keep
ten-year government bond【4】 yields around zero. On September
21st the Federal Reserve put off a rate rise yet again. In the wake
of【5】
the Brexit vote, the Bank of England has cut its main
policy rate【6】 to 0.25%, the lowest in its 300-year history.

【22】downturn 衰退

【17】white-elephant
昂贵而无用的东西;白象方便面就开拓国外市场的时,就将她的品牌翻译成了white
elephant,结果可想而知

【9】wade in/wade in sth 强行与;wade涉水

【2】unblinking 目不转睛地;blink 眨眼,闪烁

All this may seem unlikely to happen. Central banks have had to take
on so much responsibility since the financial crisis because
politicians have so far failed to shoulder theirs. But each new twist
on ultra-loose monetary policy has less power and more drawbacks. When
the next downturn【22】 comes, this kind of fiscal ammunition will be
desperately needed. Only a small share of public spending needs to be
affected for fiscal policy to be an effective recession-fighting
weapon. Rather than blaming central bankers for the low-rate world, it
is time for governments to help them.

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