The Economist 词汇解析(13)

By admin in bet体育在线网址手机版 on 2019年2月3日

序言:瑜伽不仅可以令人体变得更柔嫩,有浑圆,更能更改大家的大脑认知能力。美国健身房会涉及许多冥想类的科目,也有其科学依照。

本期原文选自The Economist 2016-9-24的Leaders板块The low-rate
world,释义来自加州洛杉矶分校高阶七版、搜狗百科等资源。如果你也在攻读The Economist,欢迎订阅我的文集The
Economist
,一起读书交换。英文修习者可以透过学习文中词汇,然后将商论的合法译文回译成英文,再对照英文原稿举行相比,找出异样,以此提升协调的英文水准。

以下内容翻译来源《科学》杂志,十二月27第358期

The low-rate world

They do not naturally crave the limelight【1】. But for the past
decade the attention on central bankers has been
unblinking【2】—and increasingly hostile. During the financial
crisis the Federal Reserve and other central banks were hailed for
their actions: by slashing rates and printing money to buy bonds, they
stopped a shock from becoming a depression. Now their signature
policy, of keeping interest rates low or even negative, is at the
centre of the biggest macroeconomic debate in a generation.

脑部神经商讨者发现,冥想和瑜伽可以增加人们的上学,纪念,认知能力以及健康的心绪。同时,通过相比较相信上帝和不信任上帝的人,经过瑜伽和冥想后的脑区信号变化,数学家发现了有的尽人皆知的不一样。

【1】limelight 公众瞩目标主导,本意是石灰光(灯)

7月28日,由AAAS(美利坚联邦合众国先进科学促进会)和Dana基金一起支持的《神经科学&社会活动》上,瑞典皇家理工州总医院精神病系副商讨员,澳大波德戈里察国立医大学心思学助理教师SaraLazar代表,不仅大脑图像数据在通过冥想磨炼者和非冥想者之间存在出入,而且在那么些参预心灵感知磨炼的靶子中,一些具体的变动,比如GRE分数得到加强,也可以给大脑带来显然的改观。

【2】unblinking 心向往之地;blink 眨眼,闪烁

“那表示我们的神经具有可塑性”,Lazar说,“通过冥想,你的大脑会所有改变,成长以及适应不一样心思的能力。”

The central bankers say that ultra-loose monetary policy【3】
remains essential to prop up still-weak economies and hit their
inflation targets. The Bank of Japan (BoJ) this week promised to keep
ten-year government bond【4】 yields around zero. On September
21st the Federal Reserve put off a rate rise yet again. In the wake
of【5】
the Brexit vote, the Bank of England has cut its main
policy rate【6】 to 0.25%, the lowest in its 300-year history.

AAAS和Dana基金会自二零一二年启幕联合协助《神经科学&社会活动》,迄今甘休已经开设过20数十次活动,参加人口完结3400人次。那项体系活动的目标是为神经学专家提供一个当面平台,分享大脑研商的最新进展,及其对民用和社会带来的意思。

【3】ultra-loose monetary policy 超宽松货币政策

汉堡大学医大学心情与神经学副教师,克莉丝Streeter,报告中标明,大脑中的一种控制神经焦虑的化学物质GABA,在yoga磨炼60秒钟后,其值到达极限。

【4】government bond 政党债券,政党公债

“那是第几遍通过科学注脚,yoga可以改变大脑中的具体化学介质水平。”Streeter助教说。

【5】in the wake of 在……之后

为了检测瑜伽是或不是比任何运动可以更好的改良心态以及解决焦虑。探究人口对通过12周郎伽运动以及散步的实验者举办了检测。

【6】policy rate 政策利率

Streeter教师说,依据心情和担忧的各样目的显示,瑜伽组一贯觉得更好。切磋声明,瑜伽一个时辰后,神经活动会暴发具体的转移,比如精神充沛,脑部宁静,积极性提高以及GABA水平的回涨。

Come Yellen and high water

But a growing chorus of critics frets about【7】 the effects of
the low-rate world—a topsy-turvy【8】 place where savers are
charged a fee, where the yields on a large fraction of rich-world
government debt come with a minus sign, and where central banks matter
more than markets in deciding how capital is allocated. Politicians
have waded in【9】. Donald Trump, the Republican presidential
nominee, has accused Janet Yellen, the Fed’s chairman, of keeping
rates low for political reasons. Wolfgang Schäuble, Germany’s finance
minister, blames the European Central Bank for the rise of Alternative
for Germany, a right-wing party.

在情感障碍患者中,即便是那个曾经在服用抗偏执性精神障碍药物的患儿中,瑜伽也能革新其睡眠,增添她们的能动,下降自杀的胸臆。所有标志心绪的测量目的都起初朝正确的趋向发展。

【7】fret about 担忧,焦虑

马库斯综合健康研究所切磋管事人,托马斯·杰弗逊大学医院的医务卫生人员,A你的天职Newberg代表,在经验过冥想和祈愿的前提下,脑部扫描显示大脑反应的歧异取决于受试者是不是相信上帝。

【8】topsy-turvy 颠倒混乱

依据一项Newberg的钻研显得,修女在祈祷上帝时,负责控制认知智力的脑部前额皮肤区域被激活,但在无神论的测试者中一向不检测到那种激活。

【9】wade in/wade in sth 强行插手;wade涉水

Newberg也谈到了通过祈祷,冥想,沉思之后,脑部化学物质水平的更动景况。通过检测受试者祈祷,冥想,沉思在此之前和之后的尾部化学水平的扭转,呈现多巴胺和血清素转运蛋白水平下落,这将使神经递质化学物质储存在脑中供未来使用。

This is a debate on which both sides get a lot wrong. It is too simple
to say that central bankers are causing the low-rate world; they are
also reacting to it. Real long-term interest rates have been declining
for decades, driven by fundamental factors such as ageing populations
and the integration of savings-rich China into the world economy (see
article). Nor have they been reckless【10】. In most of the rich
world inflation is below the official target. Indeed, in some ways
central banks have not been bold enough. Only now, for example, has
the BoJ explicitly pledged to overshoot【11】 its 2% inflation
target. The Fed still seems anxious to push up rates as soon as it
can.

【10】reckless 鲁莽的,无所顾忌的

【11】overshoot 超过,突破

Yet the evidence is mounting that the distortions caused by the
low-rate world are growing even as the gains are diminishing. The
pension-plan deficits of companies and local governments have
ballooned【12】 because it costs more to honour【13】
future pension promises when interest rates fall (see article). Banks,
which normally make money from the difference between short-term and
long-term rates, struggle when rates are flat or negative. That
impairs their ability to make loans even to the creditworthy.
Unendingly low rates have skewed financial markets, ensuring a big
sell-off【14】 if rates were suddenly to rise. The longer this
goes on, the greater the perils that accumulate.

【12】balloon 激增,膨胀;名词本意是气球

【13】honour 信守(承诺)

【14】sell-off 抛售

To live safely in a low-rate world, it is time to move beyond a
reliance on central banks. Structural reforms to increase underlying
growth rates have a vital role. But their effects materialise only
slowly and economies need succour now. The most urgent priority is to
enlist【15】 fiscal policy. The main tool for fighting
recessions has to shift from central banks to governments.

【15】enlist sth (in sth) 谋取(帮助)

To anyone who remembers the 1960s and 1970s, that idea will seem both
familiar and worrying. Back then governments took it for granted that
it was their responsibility to pep up【16】 demand. The problem
was that politicians were good at cutting taxes and increasing
spending to boost the economy, but hopeless at reversing course when
such a boost was no longer needed. Fiscal stimulus became synonymous
with an ever-bigger state. The task today is to find a form of fiscal
policy that can revive the economy in the bad times without
entrenching government in the good.

【16】pep up demand 提振必要

That means going beyond the standard response to calls for more public
spending: namely, infrastructure investment. To be clear, spending on
productive infrastructure is a good thing. Much of the rich world
could do with new toll roads, railways and airports, and it will never
be cheaper to build them. To manage the risk of
white-elephant【17】 projects, private-sector partners should be
involved from the start. Pension and insurance funds are desperate for
long-lasting assets that will generate the steady income they have
promised to retirees. Specialist pension funds can advise on a
project’s merits, with one eye on【18】 eventually buying the
assets in question.

【17】white-elephant
昂贵而无用之物;白象方便面当时开拓海外市场的时候,就把它的品牌翻译成了white
elephant,结果总而言之

【18】with one eye on sth;have one eye/half eye on sth
做一件事时偷偷注意另一件事

But infrastructure spending is not the best way to prop up weak
demand. Ambitious capital projects cannot be turned on and off to
fine-tune the economy. They are a nightmare to plan, take ages to
deliver and risk becoming bogged down【19】 in politics. To be
effective as a countercyclical tool, fiscal policy must mimic the best
features of modern-day monetary policy, whereby independent central
banks can act immediately to loosen or tighten as circumstances
require.

【19】bog sth/sb down (in sth) 使陷入烂泥,阻碍

Small-government Keynesianism【20】

Politicians will not—and should not—hand over big budget decisions to
technocrats. Yet there are ways to make fiscal policy less politicised
and more responsive. Independent fiscal councils, like Britain’s
Office for Budget Responsibility, can help depoliticise
public-spending decisions, but they do nothing to speed up fiscal
action. For that, more automaticity is needed, binding some spending
to changes in the economic cycle. The duration and generosity of
unemployment benefits could be linked to the overall joblessness rate
in the economy, for example. Sales taxes, income-tax deductions or
tax-free allowances on saving could similarly vary in line with the
state of the economy, using the unemployment rate as the
lodestar【21】.

【20】凯恩斯ianism凯恩斯主义(凯恩斯ian),或称凯恩斯主义艺术学(凯恩斯ian
economics),是依照凯恩斯的编写《就业、利息和货币通论》(1936年)的惦念根基上的经济理论,主张国家拔取扩展性的经济政策,通过扩大必要促进经济提升。(以上释义来自搜狗百科)

【21】lodestar 北极星,辅导原则

All this may seem unlikely to happen. Central banks have had to take
on so much responsibility since the financial crisis because
politicians have so far failed to shoulder theirs. But each new twist
on ultra-loose monetary policy has less power and more drawbacks. When
the next downturn【22】 comes, this kind of fiscal ammunition will be
desperately needed. Only a small share of public spending needs to be
affected for fiscal policy to be an effective recession-fighting
weapon. Rather than blaming central bankers for the low-rate world, it
is time for governments to help them.

【22】downturn 衰退

【小结】

各国央行并不曾更加渴望受到关心(limelight),但在过去的十年间,人们对央行官员们不断关怀(the
attention on central bankers has been
unblinking),而且越加怀有敌意。金融风险时期,美国联邦储备系统和其余央行曾削减利率(slashing
rates)、印钱购买债券,从而阻碍了一矢双穿萧条(recession)。但明日,保持低利率竟然负利率的方针却蒙受争议。主题总管认为,要想提振照旧疲软的经济现象(prop
up still-weak economies),仍需利用超宽松货币政策(ultra-loose monetary
policy)。日本银行本周许诺将十年期当局公债收益率(government bond
yields)保持在零左右。U.K.脱欧公投之后(in the wake
of),大英帝国央行将其关键策略利率(policy
rate)降至0.25%,那是300年来的历史最低点。但更为多的批评之声(chorus
of critics)担心(fret
about)低利率环境会导致一个颠倒混乱的(topsy-turvy)世界。外交家们早已强行参预(wade
in)。央行官员的回答措施并非鲁莽(reckless)之举。央行在某些地方照旧不够大胆(bold
enough)。现在日本央行才确保抢先(overshoot)2%的通胀目的。低利率环境会促成市场扭曲。当利率下落时,要达成以后养老金发放的应允(honour
future pension
promises)就须要投入越来越多资金,那致使公司和地点政坛的养老金陈设赤字激增(balloon)。假使突然加息,必然引发广泛抛售(sell-off)。谋取财政政策的相助(enlist
fiscal
policy)才是当务之急。上世纪60年份和70年代,政坛认为有职责提振要求(pep
up demand)。法学家们擅长通过减税和伸张支出的不二法门提振经济(boost the
economy),但不再须求这么的激励时,指望他们改弦更张则令人不快心满意。投资基础设备(infrastructure)是普通的作答方法。为了防患暴发大而无用(white-elephant)的项目,合营部门一开始就应该参加其间。在针对某个项目标独到之处提出意见时,专门养老基金也应关心(with
one eye
on)最后的投资者。基础设备项目需求多年的实践,还可能因政治因素而抱残守缺(bogged
down)。可以将没有工作率作为引导标准(lodestar),按照经济现象来调动营业税(sales
taxes)、所得税减免(income-tax deductions)或存款免税额(tax-free
allowances on
saving)。当下四次经济衰退(downturn)来临时,法学家们应负担权利,使财政政策成为强大的枪炮。现在,政党不应将低利率世界归纳于央行官员们(blame
central bankers for),而应支援她们。

注:本文仅供就学交换之用,不代表小编观点。

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