杨胖独家译本—怎么着阅读一本书?(一看就会的读书方法)

By admin in bet体育在线网址手机版 on 2019年2月9日

读一本好书,就是和许多高雅的人讲话

在过去的几年里,区块链技术升高快速而又令人心神不定,去年快要到来,对于区块链技术有如何的想像,大家不妨看看以下11个猜想!

书名:How to read a book?

作者:Paul N. Edwards

翻译:年轻的杨胖

1.区块链将超过加密货币。

一旦你对半数以上人说“区块链”,他们会立时想到比特币,而且还不明了它是哪些。即使区块链是加密货币(数字资产充当沟通媒介,使用密码术来确保交易)的功底,但它其实是一个更宽泛的办法来打造、存储和护卫数量。当用作分布式账本时,区块链由跨大旨无权的总结机互联网连接的数据或交易块组成。它同意跨云甚至跨公司共享该分布式账本,而不会给单一方篡改它,这所有强大的意义。假如有关商品来自、身份、证书和数字义务的信息可以高枕无忧地蕴藏和共享。

自我最欢畅使用非金融区块链的例子:来自英帝国的一家软件集团Provenance。该公司成功试用了区块链和智能标签来跟踪捕获到消费者的金枪鱼,从而允许可验证的社会可持续性要求,其他有益。所以,加密货币并不一定是前景,看起来好像区块链一样。

How can you learn the most from a book—or any other piece of
writing—when you’re readingfor information, rather than for pleasure?

当您为了求知而不是高神采飞扬兴去读书时,怎样才能学到更加多的事物吗?

It’s satisfying to start at the beginning and read straight through to
the end. Some books, such as novels, have to be read this way, since a
basic principle of fiction is to hold the reader in suspense. Your whole
purpose in reading fiction is to follow the writer’s lead, allowing him
or her to spin a story bit by bit.

稍许书,从头开端一直读到尾就足以了。比如小说,就必须用那种方法阅读,因为小说的要旨尺度就是安装悬念,令读者有读下来的私欲。看虚构类书籍就是要接着小编的思路,让它一点一点地把故事讲给您听。

But many of the books, articles, and other documents you’ll read during
your undergraduate and graduate years, and possibly during the rest of
your professional life, won’t be novels. Instead, they’ll be
non-fiction: textbooks, manuals, journal articles, histories, academic
studies, and so on.

可是无论是在您学习、工作、或是生活中,还设有着很多跟小说不雷同的书籍、小说和文献值得反复咀嚼。那些是非虚构类书籍:教材、手册、杂志、历史、学术商量等等。

The purpose of reading things like this is to gain, and retain,
information. Here, finding out what happens—as quickly and easily as
possible—is your main goal. So unless you’re stuck in prisonwith nothing
else to do, NEVER read a non-fiction book or article from beginning to
end.

开卷那类书籍是为了获取和保存音信。尽可能高速方便地找出书中的关键才是您读书那类书籍的严重性目标。所以,除非你被关在监狱里无事可做,千万不要从头到尾去阅读一本非虚构类书籍!

(带着难题读,找到答案就足以了)

Instead, when you’re reading for information, you should ALWAYS jump
ahead, skip around, and use every available strategy to discover, then
to understand, and finally to remember what the writer has to say. This
is how you’ll get the most out of a book in the smallest amount of time.

与通读相反,当你为了从书中收获主要音信时,你应当连发地跳读、略读、并用上任何可用的办法去搜寻答案,接着消化领会,最后把小编想要表明的记下来。那会使你在最短的时光内从一本书里获取最多的音信。

Using the methods described here, you should be able to read a 300-page
book in six to eight hours. Of course, the more time you spend, the more
you’ll learn and the better you’ll understand the book. But your time is
limited.

运用这几个主意,你应该就能在六到五个钟头内读完一本300页的书。当然,花的时刻越来越多,学到的就越多、领悟也会更深。但你的日子是零星的。

Here are some strategies to help you do this effectively. Most of these
can be applied not only to books, but also to any other kind of
non-fiction reading, from articles to websites. Table 1, on the next
page, summarizes the techniques, and the following pages explain them in
more detail.

那会儿有一部分能帮您增强阅读效能的不二法门。大多数方法不仅适用于书,还适用于其余非虚构类读物,从文章到网站。表1计算了拥有的法子技巧,之后是对章程更详尽地表达。

Table1


2.区块链将成为超过七个技术领域的机要破坏者。

区块链技术一度开头变异严重的风潮
,而不光是加密货币的世界。就连美利坚合营国防务承包石嘴山克希德·马丁公司似乎也在探索区块链相关的网络安全选拔。即便大家推测区块链将在二零一八年变为跨越三个技巧世界的绝密破坏者,但要等待几年岁月才能化解漏洞,并认为技术已经丰裕成熟,成为商家安全的根底。

Read the whole thing!

3.去年区块链将是最被滥用和误解的术语。

就像是比特币这么些术语一样,一大半人都不知底它的实际含义,也频频解区块链在比特币交易在平安跟踪、分类中的成效。不过,区块链可以用来这么多领域。那种对话将持续下去,去年将会有恢宏有关区块链的宣扬。不幸的是,很多少人只会将区块链与比特币联系在联合,而且会连续混乱。

4.区块链将以更快的快慢持续前进下去

二零一八年区块链的施用将以更快的进程持续下去。那是一个环球性的场景,早期的生育成功将在中东和澳国表现出来。

趁着需要加密货币的敲诈软件攻击的面世,区块链和物联网互连网安全将随着基于加密货币技术的防守而出现。

区块链将促进公司的数字化转型,越发是自动化、流程数字化、有形资产和运动的标记化以及错综复杂合同的编排。

保障业将成为区块链技术的热门领域,索赔处理和像代位求偿那样复杂的多头进程将突显区块链自动化的商业价值。

鉴于Equifax等根本不合法行为注脚你无法维护当前的身份数据系统,由此须要一个越来越安全的根据区块链的地位识别方法,而尚未人存有富有密钥的点子就会冒出。

摩尔根大通将开办一个加密货币交易平台,固然吉姆my·戴蒙(JamieDimon)的“一分钟之火”对拥有交易比特币的摩尔根大通(JPMorgan)交易员都有褒贬。

随着新挑衅的产出,治理难点将继续苦恼比特币(Segwit2x),Etherium(冷冻奇偶校验基金)等,那将推进公司进入“私人”区块链,但不会减速主题加密货币的增长速度。

通读全文

In reading to learn, your goal should always be to get all the way
through the assignment. It’s much more important to have a general grasp
of the arguments or hypotheses, evidence, and conclusions than to
understand every detail. In fact, no matter how carefully you read, you
won’t remember most of the details anyway.

在读书中读书,你的目的就应该是想尽办法明白小说结构大意。对文章内容有一个大约的摸底比了然论点、如果、论据以及结论等富有细节都首要。事实上,无论你读得多么仔细,你也不容许记下书中具备的细节。

What you can do is remember and record the main points. And if you
remember those, you know enough to find the material again if you ever
do need to recall the details.

你能做的就是记念和笔录文章要点,一旦您如此做了,就可见在须求的时候轻松纪念起文中的细节。


5.店家将初步投资区块链。

区块链不仅仅是比特币和以太坊,它的影响才刚刚开端。老董、首席技术官和上座音信官前些年的酷炫事情将会吹嘘他们的商家在区块链上投入了稍稍钱,以及接下来将生产什么新应用和成品。区块链的下一个施用将是极品管理员:区块链在种种交易中强制落成透明和安全的力量将彻底改变任何索要依据信任的老本或音讯变换的行业,同时削减摩擦和本钱。去年,区块链最大的用例之一就是盛产顶尖锁定程序,以便比传统格局更好地维护和评释文档。

Decide how much time you will spend

6.物联网设备将与机具学习、人工智能(AI),雾计算和区块链技术融合。

那将帮扶集团从单独发生增量收益的物联网举措转化那么些制造全新商业方式和收入流的店堂。那将使公司从物联网投资中获得更大的价值,并牵动更宽广的运用。

估计费用时间

If you know in advance that you have only six hours to read, it’ll be
easier to pace yourself. Remember, you’re going to read the whole book
(or the whole assignment).

只要你预先设定6个钟头为限来读一本书,就能更好地调动协调阅读的音频。记得,你要做到的是整本书的读书(或整篇散文)。

In fact, the more directly and realistically you confront your limits,
the more effective you will be at practically everything. Setting time
limits and keeping to them (while accomplishing your goals) is one of
the most important life skills you can learn. So never start to read
without planning when to stop.

实在,越是直接和具体地面对自己的不难时间,就一发能很快完结总体。设置时限并严刻依照(以已毕目的)是最根本的一项可习得生活技能。所以在阅读前,一定要设置时间限制。


7.八个区块链将贯穿价值链

Blockchain从勘探飞快移动到职责重点的生产场景。先进的接纳案例和更加多的使用拉动了在大型集体内协调,整合和和谐多个区块链布署的必要,有可能贯穿整个价值链的七个区块链。

Have a purpose and a strategy

妇孺皆知目的与方法

Before you begin, figure out why you are reading this particular book,
and how you are going to read it. If you don’t have reasons and
strategies of your own—not just those of your teacher—you won’t learn as
much.

阅读以前,弄通晓为何读那本书,以及怎么读。如若您未曾团结的理由和艺术(老师给的不算),你恐怕学不到任何事物。

As soon as you start to read, begin trying to find out four things:

开卷的时候,试着找出那八个难题的答案:

•Who is the author?

•What are the book’s arguments?

•What is the evidence that supports these?

•What are the book’s conclusions?

•小编是什么人?

•本书的观点是如何?

•本书接纳了怎么论据?

•本书的定论又是怎么?

Once you’ve got a grip on these, start trying to determine:

上述难题有了答案之后,请试着应对接下去的题目:

•What are the weaknesses of these arguments, evidence, and
conclusions?

•What do you think about the arguments, evidence, and conclusions?

•How does (or how could) the author respond to these weaknesses, and
to

your own criticisms?

•论点、论据、结论有没有站不住脚的地点?

•你怎么看文中的论点、论据和结论?

•对于没有说服力的有的,小编是(可能会)怎么回应?你的眼光是什么?

Keep coming back to these questions as you read. By the time you finish,
you should be able to answer them all. Three good ways to think about
this are:

开卷的历程中也可以不断完善你的答案,当您读完一本书的时候,你应当已经答完所有难题了。两种思想这一个题材的思路是:

a) Imagine that you’re going to review the book for a magazine.

b) Imagine that you’re having a conversation, or a formal debate, with
the author.

c) Imagine an examination on the book. What would the questions be,
and how would you answer them?

a)若是你要为杂志审查那本书。

b)想象一下您将与小编进行五回对话或标准辩论。

c)即使你的考试与本书有关,难点会是何许?你又会怎么应答?


8.将启用新的数量解析用例。

在四个行业的各个应用中使用区块链将使新的数码解析具有莫大的准确性、隐衷和地位体贴,为公司和个人提供至关首要的价值。例如,在经济和房地产行业,抵押借款审批流程的解析可以大大简化。借款人可以接纳通过区块链与买方分享准确的个人收入和支出目标,绕过收集薪金单、银行对账单和其余纸质文书的高昂、欺诈、不难出错和急难的手动进度。在匿名性获得丰硕保障的事态下,还足以将那么些目标用于汇总分析,从而提供洞察力、贷款流程的频率,包罗更准确地预测信誉。在健康和爱护、制药、生命科学、金融和其他世界也设有任何强大的可能性。

Read actively

9.二〇一八年,透过区块链将落成透明和防城港的造访。

区块链现在在那里,它将持续获得牵动力,因为它为供应链提供了透明度
,越发是在复杂的供应链行业,如小车和零售行业。区块链安全地赋予对一切生态系统中暴发的有所交易的拜会权限。大家曾经在银行业的背景下考虑过区块链,可是那项技能正在小车和零售世界快捷取得牵动。区块链就绪交易是大家将在去年议论的一个定义。

百尺竿头更进一步阅读

Don’t wait for the author to hammer you over the head. Instead, from the
very beginning, constantly generate hypotheses (“the main point of the
book is that…”) and questions (“How does the author know that…?”)
about the book.

不要期望小编对你一头棒喝,从一开头就要不断地提议难点并作出假诺。(比如:“那本书的要害意见是…”、“小编是怎么驾驭那或多或少的?”)

Making brief notes about these can help. As you read, try to confirm
your hypotheses and answer your questions. Once you finish, review
these.

简洁的笔记会有很大用处。阅读的时候,不断申明自己的比方和题材,读完未来,可以回顾三遍。


Know the author(s) and organizations

10.备选好面对区块链炒作背后的求实。

二〇一八年将是CIO们将应用区块链技术的潜力。就算将有坚如磐石的一字不苟和少量的突破,但不用期望二〇一八年技术成熟度有紧要飞跃。别的,首席音信官、CISO将越发关切区块链安全,区块链将开头改变欺诈管理和身份验证。银行业务流程也将在二零一八年采纳异构区块链。

明白小编及其社团

Knowing who wrote a book helps you judge its quality and understand its
full significance. Authors are people. Like anyone else, their views are
shaped by their educations, their jobs, their early lives, and the rest
of their experiences. Also like anyone else, they have prejudices, blind
spots, desperate moments, failings, and desires—as well as
insights, brilliance, objectivity, and successes. Notice all of it.

询问作者能够协助您对书中的内容展开判断和清楚。作者也是人,跟咱们一样。他们的咀嚼也会受到教育、工作、早期生活、以及其它经历的影响。同时,他们也会有偏见、盲区、黯然、退步、以及欲望,当然,还有见识、智慧、客观和成功。大家相应全面地驾驭小编。

Most authors belong to organizations: universities, corporations,
governments, newspapers, magazines. These organizations each have
cultures, hierarchies of power, and social norms. Organizations shape
both how a work is written and the content of what it says. For example,
university professors are expected to write books and/or journal
articles in order to get tenure. These pieces of writing must meet
certain standards of quality, defined chiefly by other professors; for
them, content usually matters more than good writing. Journalists, by
contrast, are often driven by deadlines and the need to please large
audiences. Because of this, their standards of quality are often
directed more toward clear and engaging writing than toward
unimpeachable content; their sources are usually oral rather than
written.

大抵作者都有着落的团体:大学,公司,政坛,报社,杂志社。这么些集体各有其知识,权力层级和社会规范。社团决定了作品的情节和版式。举个栗子,大学助教写书或舆论寻常是为了博取职称,那些小说必须严刻听从其余教师制定的例外专业来写,对他们的话,写作的优劣是由内容决定的。与此相反,记者写报纸公布则要如期交稿,目的是玩玩本田(Honda)。因而,他们的稿子正式平时是清晰明了,以口语化为主。

The more you know about the author and his/her organization and/or
discipline, the better you will be able to evaluate what you read. Try
to answer questions like these: What shaped the author’s intellectual
perspective? What is his or her profession? Is the author an academic, a
journalist, a professional (doctor, lawyer, industrial scientist, etc.)?
Expertise? Other books and articles? Intellectual network(s)? Gender?
Race? Class? Political affiliation? Why did the author decide to write
this book? When? For what audience(s)? Who paid for the research work
(private foundations, government grant agencies, industrial
sponsors, etc.)? Who wrote“jacket blurbs”in support of the book?

您对作者和她的所属单位进一步驾驭,对文章的接头也就越透彻。试着应对那几个题材:是怎么样构成了小编的体味层面?他\她从事哪一行业?作者是大家?记者?仍旧专业人士(医务卫生人员,律师,工业物理学家等)?是技术专家吗?小编还有任何文章吗?性别?种族?阶级?政治倾向?作者写那本书是为了什么?曾几何时写的?读者群是何许?什么人支持了切磋项目(个人资产,政党资本,投资人等)?什么人为那本书作序宣传?

You can often (though not always) learn about much of this from the
acknowledgments, the bibliography, and the author’s biographical
statement.

你可以试着从书的题词、参考书目、以及小编的自序中找找难点的答案。


11.二零一八年区块链技术的使用将大大影响互联网安全。

使用空间区块链中的一个世界将在去年及未来发生。区块链技术援助使用多量分布式分类账来记录任何交易,并跟踪任何基金的位移,无论是有形的,无形的或者数字化的,并向任哪个人开放。区块链技术的破坏性方面是其隐秘的破除中间人,如政坛单位,银行,清算所和Uber,Airbnb和eBay等营业所。

区块链在执行交易时为这个和任何公司提供了一个速度和财力节约的法子。区块链共享,分发和复制分类账允许交易双方直接更新每笔交易的共享分类帐。由于各方直接通过共享分类帐进行互动,所以他们必须互相信任,并且共享分类账中的交易记录只好由不利的当事人看到。由此,互连网安全技术,更加是加密和访问控制,是区块链的关键技术。

Know the intellectual context

打听文化背景

Knowing the author and his/her organization also helps you understand
the book’s intellectual context. This includes the academic
discipline(s) from which it draws, schools of thought within that
discipline, and others who agree with or oppose the author’s viewpoint.

对笔者及其团队的垂询可见帮忙我们询问小编的行文背景。蕴含所提到的课程,学科内的派系,以及此外协理或不扶助小编观点的人。

A book is almost always partly a response to other writers, so you’ll
understand a book much better if you can figure out what, and whom, it
is answering. Pay special attention to points where the author tells you
directly that s/he is disagreeing with others: “Conventional wisdom
holds that x, but I argue instead that y.”(Is x really
conventional wisdom? Among what group of people?)“Famous Jane Scholar
says that x, but I will show that y.”(Who’s Famous Jane, and why do
other people believe her? How plausible are x and y? Is the author
straining to find something original to say, or has s/he genuinely
convinced you that Famous Jane is wrong?) Equally important are the
people and writings the author cites in support of his/her arguments.

书可能是作者对其余小编的某种回应,所以,假如你可以找到小编所回应的点,以及提议这几个点的另一位小编,会使你的通晓更参加木三分。留意小编在文中提议的她所不允许的见解:“一般认为这么,而自我觉着是那样。”(一般看法着实是这么?那种一般看法来自何地?)。“有名的Jane
Sholar说是如此,而自我觉着是那么。”(那几个闻明的Jane是哪位?,我们为何都相信他?究竟哪位更可靠?小编只是换了一种表达格局,依旧真的要推翻前人的答辩?)在理念的支撑出力上,人们的大规模价值观与小编的引用是一致的。


Read it three times

四次阅读

This is the key technique. You’ll get the most out of the book if you
read it three times— each time for a different purpose.

这是非同一般的一步。如果您可见读一次,你就能在一本书中尽量多得获取新闻——每回翻阅的目标都不相同。

a)Overview: discovery (5-10 percent of total time)

略读:探索(时间总比例:5-10%)

Here you read very quickly, following the principle (described below)
of reading for high information content. Your goal is to discover the
book. You want a quick-and-dirty, unsophisticated, general picture of
the writer’s purpose, methods, and conclusions.

其一进度中你会读得火速,根据以下原则你会博得尽可能多的新闻。你的对象是探索整本书,并列出一个有关作者撰写目标、方法、结论的完整框架结构。

Mark—without reading carefully—headings, passages, and phrases that seem
important (you’ll read these more closely the second time
around.) Generate questions to answer on your second reading: what does
term or phrase X mean? Why doesn’t the author cover subject Y? Who is Z?

在标题,段落,短语等根本地方做标记,但毫无仔细阅读(第二遍时您将会更细致地阅读那么些地点)。标记是为第二遍阅读指出难点以便更详实地问询:X是如何意思?小编为什么要涉及学科Y?
Z是哪个人?

b) Detail: understanding (70-80 percent of total time)

细节:明白(时间总比例:70-80%)

Within your time constraints, read the book a second time. This time,
your goal is understanding: to get a careful, critical, thoughtful grasp
of the key points, and to evaluate the author’s evidence for his/her
points.

在为期之内,读第二遍。那四遍的目的是清楚:仔细、客观、深刻地考虑关键点,并分析小编论证时的论据。

Focus especially on the beginnings and ends of chapters and major
sections. Pay special attention to the passages you marked on the first
round. Try to answer any questions you generated on the first round.

对小说和段子的原委、以及第三次阅读时的号子要专门小心。试着应对第一次阅读时提议的题目。

c) Notes: recall and note-taking (10-20 percent of total time)

笔记:回忆和笔录(时间总比例:10-20%)

The purpose of your third and final reading is to commit to memory
the most important elements of the book. This time, make brief notes
about the arguments, evidence, and conclusions. This is not at all the
same thing as text markup; your goal here is to process the material by
translating into your own mental framework, which means using your own
words as much as possible. Cutting and pasting segments of text from the
book will not do as much for you as summarizing very briefly in your own
words. Include the bare minimum of detail to let you remember and
re-locate the most important things. 1-3 pages of notes per 100 pages of
text is a good goal to shoot for; more than that is often too much. Use
some system that lets you easily find places in the book (e.g., start
each note with a page number.)

其三回阅读是为着深化对小说首要片段的纪念。对文中的论点、论据和结论做肯定的笔记。与上文提到的号子不相同,这么些笔记是读者用自己的语言来“翻译”小说内容,只要自己能明了就行。剪切和粘贴文章中的内容,与友好大约地计算,是全然分裂的。简洁概括之后,不仅助长记念,仍能在询问主要内容时,举行神速稳定。每一百页的内容,做1-3页的笔记就够用了,过多的始末反而会来得冗长。系统地做速记有助于对小说的定位。(比如:参与页码)

Notebooks, typed pages, or handwritten sheets tucked into the book can
all work. However, notes will be useless unless you can easily find them
again. A very good system—the one I use—is to type notes directly
into bilbiography entries using citation manager software such as
Endnote, Zotero, or Bookends. See below for more on citation managers.

把笔记,打印纸、手写纸夹在书里也很不错。不过笔记要记录在醒目的地点,否则就毫无意义。我在用的一个好点子是:把笔记直接输入软件中去,比如Endnote,Zotero,或者是Bookends。下文中有更加多的笔记软件。


On time and timing

对时间的把控

First, because human attention fades after about an hour, you’ll get
more out of three one- hour readings than you could ever get out of one
three-hour reading. But be careful: to get one full hour of effective
reading, you need to set aside at least one hour and fifteen minutes,
since distraction is inevitable at the beginning (settling in) and end
(re-arousal for your next task) of any reading period.

第一,由于人的注意力在集中一钟头后会分明回落,因此,“每一次读1时辰,屡次三番3次”的阅读效果要比“每趟读3小时,只读四遍”好得多。可是请留意,每进行1个小时的会聚阅读,就必须留够至少一小时十五分的小时,因为在上马读书(前摄困扰)和将要停止(后摄烦扰)的时刻里,注意力是会被荒废的。

Second, make a realistic plan that includes how much time you will
devote to each of the three stages. For a 250-page book, I might spend
15 minutes on overview, 4 hours on detailed reading, and 20-30 minutes
making notes—but I’d adjust these periods up or down depending on how
difficult the text is, how important it is to me, and how much time
I have.

帮助,阅读前请做出一个实际的求实时间布置。比如读一本250页的书,我或许用15分钟去浏览,花4个小时集中阅读,最终20到30秒钟做笔录。不过,具体时刻自己还会按照内容难度、紧要程度以及自身没事的日子进行调整。


Focus on the parts with high information content

关爱多音讯内容

Non-fiction books very often have an“hourglass”structure that is
repeated at several levels of organization. More general (broader)
information is typically presented at the beginnings and ends of:

貌似的话,非虚构类书籍的社团都类似于一个“沙漏”,就是全进程比较宽,中间比较窄。具体来说:

•the book or article as a whole (abstract, introduction, conclusion)

•each chapter

•each section within a chapter

•each paragraph

•整本书的框架(摘要、简介、结论)

•每一章

•一章里的每一节

•每一段

More specific (narrower) information (supporting evidence, details,
etc.) then appears in the middle of the hourglass.

相对详细具体的音讯(论据,细节等)常常排在小说中部,即“沙漏”结构中较窄的一对。

沙漏结构

You can make the hourglass structure of writing do a lot of work for
you. Focus on the following elements, in more or less the following
order:

你可以参照沙漏写作结构做过多的事情,以下几点要素可作为参照:

•Front and back covers, inner jacket flaps

•Table of contents

•Index: scan this to see which are the most important terms

•Bibliography: tells you about the book’s sources and intellectual
context

•Preface and/or Introduction and/or  Abstract

•Conclusion

•Pictures, graphs, tables, figures: images contain more information
than text

•Chapter introductions and conclusions

•Section headings

•Special type or formatting: boldface, italics, numbered items,
lists

•前后封面

•目录

•索引:可以疾速稳定最紧要内容

•参考书目:用来询问本书的源于和学识背景

•前言/简介/摘要

•总结

•图片,图,表,数据:图像比文字包蕴越多音讯

•章节介绍和结论

•章节标题

•特殊类型或格式:小篆、斜体、项目编号、列表


Use PTML (personal text markup language)

应用个人语言记录

Always, always, always mark up your reading. This is a critical part of
active reading. Do this from the very beginning—even on your first,
overview reading. Why? Because when you come back to the book later,
your marks reduce the amount you have to look at and help you see what’s
most significant.

阅读时切记,切记,切记标记。那是勇往直前阅读最关键的一对。从一开首就要学着标记,即便你是个新手。为何呢?因为标记能扶助您更管用地消除多余新闻,定位紧要音信。

Don’t mark too much. This defeats the purpose of markup; when you
consult your markup later, heavy markup will force you to re-read
unimportant information. As a rule, you should average no more than two
or three short marks per page. Rather than underline whole sentences,
underline words or short phrases that capture what you most need
to remember. The point of this is to distill, reduce, eliminate the
unnecessary. Write words and phrases in the margins that tell you what
paragraphs or sections are about. Use your own Words.

不要标记太多。那样会背离标记的初衷,过多的标志在您想起时会迫使你浏览过多没用的新闻。每一页,2到3个标志刚好,这是一个必要信守的规范。别在总体句子下划线,尝试在急需回想的要紧单词或短语下划线。标记是为着提取、缩减以及排除不要求的信息。同时,用自己的语言在空白处写下对段落或章节的下结论。


Page vs. Screen

纸质对屏幕

Printed material has far higher resolution (~600 dpi) than even the best
computer screens (~100 dpi); see the illustration of 300 vs. 600 dpi,
below. For this reason you will read more accurately, and with less
fatigue, if you stick with the paper version. Still, we inevitably
read much more screen-based material now.

纸制品的分辨率(600dpi)远不止最好的电脑显示器(100dpi)。如下图所示300对600dpi。由此阅读印纸制品比读书电脑显示屏越发清楚,也更不简单疲倦。但鉴于客观原因,我们又不可防止地在电脑屏幕上进行越来越多地阅读。

300vs600

Markup on the screen: It remains difficult to mark up screen-based
materials effectively. The extra steps involved are distracting, as is
the temptation to check email or websurf. Also, with screen-based markup
you often have to click on a note in order to read it, which means
you’re less likely to do it later. It remains far easier to mark up a
printed copy!

在显示器上做标记方今效用很低。别的,在处理器上读书时注意力很难集中,比如平常会情不自禁检查邮箱或是浏览网页。同时,基于标记是在微机上进展的,你在读笔记时不得不进行点击,你也许不会愿意那样麻烦。那也就象征在电脑上做标记依旧不那么简单。

However, if you’re disciplined, recent versions of Acrobat, Apple
Preview, and third-party PDF viewers such as PDFpen, iAnnotate, and
Goodreader allow you to add comments, highlighting, and so on to PDFs.
Voice recognition can make this a lot easier. Today, I routinely read
and annotate PDFs on an iPad, using voice recognition when I want to
make a note. Some of these readers, as well as ebook readers such as
Kindle, allow you to export only your highlights and notes. This is a
great way to make yourself a condensed version of a document. Paste it
into the notes field of your citation manager and it’ll always be at
your fingertips. Hunt around on the web for ways to do this kind of
thing on an industrial scale (especially with Kindle books).

唯独,如果你有觉察地去操练自己,以上提到的弱点可能会变得容易点儿。最新版的Acrobat、Apple Preview,还有第三方PDF浏览工具如PDFpen、iAnnotate,以及Goodreader那么些软件都允许你在篇章中添加评论。语音识别器也会让那几个进程更为轻松。近来,我时常在GALAXY Tab上读书,并选拔语音功用做标注。一些读者使用电子书阅读器,比如kindle,可以从来出口标记的有的以及和谐的笔记。那是制作专属文本极好的办法。将文件粘贴到“引文管理”,这么些消息将变得随时随处都得以被提取。在网上通过搜索仍能找到愈多类似的法门(尤其是kindle类电子阅读器)。

When taking notes about something you’re reading (as opposed to marking
up the text), you’ll be tempted to cut and paste the original text in
lieu of making your own notes in your own words. Cut-and-paste can
sometimes work well, especially for things you might want to quote
later. However: in general it defeats the two main purposes of
note-taking: (a) learning and remembering (by rephrasing in your own
terms), and (b) condensing into a very short form. The same is true of
links: though useful for keeping track of sources, keeping a URL will
not by itself help you remember or understand what’s there, even though
it may feel that way.

在处理器上做笔记时,会对初稿进行“剪切”和“粘贴”,然后用自己的话把它复述四次。“剪切粘贴”有时即使方便,越发是您未来也许会引用到的情节。可是这么些措施违背了俺们做速记最初的八个规范:a)学习,记念。(通过用自己的话复述)b)精炼文字。“超链接”同样如此:就算在资源检索上非凡便宜,可是却不便民咱们对学识的通晓和利用。


Use a citation manager

动用引文管理

It’s hard to overemphasize the huge advantages of citation manager
software such as Endnote, Bookends, Zotero, Mendeley, CiteULike, etc.
They let you keep track of your growing library, easily enter and format
citations in your word processor (saving you the incredible irritation
of doing it yourself). Most of them can pull in citations directly from
the web, record web links, find DOI’s, and so on. Some have their own
web search tools built in. Some, such as Bookends (Mac only), will
automatically rename documents with Author- Date-Title, a huge help with
the extremely annoying problem of uninformative filenames.

过火强调引文管理软件的亮点是很难的,比如Endnote, Bookends, Zotero,
Mendeley,
CiteULike等等。这个软件可以让您随时遍地存取自己的文件音讯(那足以扶助你节省大批量的时日)。半数以上软件都足以间接引用网页、记录网页链接、查找识别码等。有一些还内嵌着网页搜索工具。其中的一部分,例如Bookends
(Mac
only),可以基于小编、日期、标题的格式对文件进行机动重命名,那很大程度上压缩了无音信文件名给我们带来的苦恼。

None of these packages are perfect. All have both advantages and
disadvantages, and the more sophisticated ones have steep learning
curves. Look for one that can handle all major document formats,
including books, journal articles, newspaper articles, online
sources, interviews, and so on. Be wary of managers that only handle
PDFs, since so many other formats are still important.

那几个软件包没有一个是包蕴万象的,他们都有分其他利弊。越是繁复的软件,学习曲线就尤其陡峭。与其找一款可以拍卖包括书籍、杂志、报纸、互联网资源、采访等具有文档格式的软件,不如专注于一款只帮助PDF格式的软件,即使其余格式也很重大。

If you use the notes field of your citation manager in a disciplined
way, your notes will always be easy to find. When your library starts
reaching into the thousands of items, this is a godsend.

要是你的笔记管理已经有了友好的尺度和格局,文本检索会变得极度简单。当你开端在众多的新闻中搜寻时,你会以为上帝都在帮您!


Use your unconscious mind

采纳潜意识

An awful lot of thinking and mental processing goes on when you’re not
aware of it. Just as with writing or any other creative thought process,
full understanding of a book takes time to develop.

固然在无意下,思想和思维也在高速运行着。与创作等创建性进程同样,对一本书的深入领会也急需费用一定时间才能完毕。

Like the body, the mind suffers from fatigure when doing just one thing
for many hours. Your ability to comprehend and retain what you read
drops off dramatically after an hour or so. Therefore, you should read a
book in several short sessions of one to two hours apiece, rather than
one long marathon.

就如大家的躯体,一连不停的系念也会时有暴发疲劳感。对读书的知道和记念能力在时时刻刻阅读一时辰后就会极大下降。因此,千万别像马拉松一样持续阅读,而应该选拔每一回一到两时辰的间断性阅读。

In between, your unconscious mind will process some of what you’ve read.
When you come back for the next session, start by asking yourself what
you remember from your previous reading, what you think of it so far,
and what you still need to learn.

在放宽时间里,大脑的潜意识会自动处理你曾读到的新闻。在您继承读书的时候,记忆一下以前的开卷内容还记得有些?现在怎么了解?以及,你还需要知道什么样?


Rehearse, and use multiple modes

多形式践行

Reading is exactly like martial arts, baseball, or cooking in the sense
thatlearning and memory depend crucially on rehearsal.

翻阅跟武术,棒球和厨艺一样,学习和回想都亟需苦心训练

So—after you’ve read the book, rehearse what you’ve learned. Quiz
yourself on its contents. Argue with the author. Imagine how you would
defend the author’s position in your own writing.

由此,阅读一本书之后,对所学知识进行刻意磨炼。并对演习内容展开测试。试着与小编的观点展开驳斥,或是想象怎么着用自己的语言去论证小编的视角。

Reading, writing, speaking, listening, and visualizing all engage
different parts of the brain. For this reason, the best forms of
rehearsal usemultiple modesof thinking and action. Don’t just
contemplate privately. Instead, talk about the book with others. Bring
it up in classes. Write about it. Visualize anything that can be
visualized about its contents. All of this helps fix your memory and
integrate your new learning into the rest of your knowledge.

听、说、读、写和具象化的力量是由大脑的例外区域开展管理,所以,最好的苦心操练就是具有思考与行动的多格局践行。不要总是一个人大费周折,试着与外人举行沟通,或是把观点带入班级,或者写成文字。可想而知,把你能具象化的情节统统具象化。这么些都将支持您对习得知识的接头和记念。


Hang in there!

百折不挠到底!

When I give presentations on these ideas, students often tell me a few
weeks later that they “tried it a few times and just couldn’t do it,”so
they stopped.

当自己公布那篇小说的几周之后,很多学员那样跟自身说:“我试了试,但好像没什么作用。”所以她们就扬弃了。

You will have to practice these techniques for a considerable length of
time—at least a few months—before they come to seem natural, and they
will never be easier than the comfortable, passive way we’ve all been
reading for many years. Hang in there. The rewards of these techniques
are great, or so say the hundreds of students who’ve told me so years
later. Learning to read like this can be a critical key to a successful
career as a student, scholar, or professional in almost any field.

您最好刻意并理性地陶冶一段时间,至少多少个月啊。在习惯成自然从前,你肯定会认为不太适应、也不太舒服,毕竟,大家早已维持了重重年此前的翻阅习惯。

百折不挠到底!那种阅读策略的回报会突破天际!多年后许多学童都如此跟自家说。无论你是学生,学者,或是教师,那样的翻阅格局,都会是您在其余领域成功的主要!

都看出那儿了,看在我把整本书都翻译完的份上儿,就点个赞再走呗~

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