一人,一座城 – 布拉格的柠檬草香bet体育在线网址手机版

By admin in bet体育在线网址手机版 on 2019年3月28日

BBC原著鏈接:http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20170608-some-dung-beetles-have-taken-to-decapitating-millipedes

肚子饿了,就想要吃。心里空了,就想起你。(图片来源网络)

前两日收到高校寄来的硕士学位证书,算是给作者在新西兰的求学画上了二个到家的句号。要是Y还在赫尔辛基的话,她自然会集体狂欢活动,热情招待全体一起毕业的校友。

Y是韩国人,她在食品中用到不乏先例的香草,再没有食欲的人,也迫于拒绝食而亡品散发出的白芷。她常给自家做的越南社会主义共和国客官中有一种味道,隐约约约,若即若离,疑似柠檬却又不带别的酸气。

Y告诉本人,那是柠檬草的意味。

柠檬草(图片源于网络)

柠檬草是看上去很不起眼的一种植物,粗粗一看和杂草没太大分别。但是你一旦拿起一根凑到鼻子面前,就会为祥和刚刚的论断感到惭愧。那种味道很十分,清新不浓烈,然则又够持久。柠檬草的纸牌一层层裹得很紧,由此在烹调中,日常是把叶子一稀缺剥开或是剁成一小段一小段使用,以帮衬香味的分发。

Y是柠檬草一样的巾帼。第①次在课上见她时,觉得他正是个雷诺到不可能再日产的成家女人。没化妆的大圆脸,披着不太自然的齐肩短发,
外加三个土土的双肩包。她赶在上课前最后一秒进了教室,径直坐到了自家边上的空位。

初看到了解不过几天,小编便偷偷地训斥本身一度用那么的见地去审判他。因为他那经常的表面下,包着她难得的卓殊香气:卓绝、谦逊、善良、感恩、心思…

—说她不错—

Y是因为工作突显特出,才申请到了新西兰政党的奖学金,有了这一次的留学机会。而她在越南社会主义共和国时,在一家管理小微贷款的慈善机构工作,赞助资金紧张的小企购买生产装备。然后,那一个受援助的营业所,将生产出的制品再赠送给社会,形成良性循环。

在大学生学习中,她把大把的时日花在了教室,而且她也是自身打听到的唯一三个兼有课程都拿了A或是A-的人。

—说她谦虚—

Y其实是作者就学上的竞争敌手,因为自己的享有科目也都拿了A或是A-。赶上作者成绩比她好那么部分些时,作者就三日四头在他前边嘚瑟也在其他同学面前嘚瑟,恨不得全数人都驾驭本人这一次比他成就高。而他更是关怀的是和自己交换笔者的思绪和方式,找到本身是何地还没有领悟透彻。

—说她善良—

开卷时期小编也一贯在市里打工,下班平常都在6点以往。等搭上公车到了自家住的区之后,还要骑一段摩托车才能到家。冬日,冬龙时天早就已经黑透了,但小编时时不回本身家,而是径直去Y家,因为她给自家留了饭菜,不愿让自家回家后还急飞快忙开火。必要赶故事集时,作者干脆在收工后连着好几天都去她家蹭饭吃。她每三遍都用相同的古道热肠款待笔者,平素不曾过二遍怠慢。

—说他感恩—

Y来新西兰留学,其实还带着贰虚岁的幼子和不会说立陶宛共和国(Republic of Lithuania)语的孩子他爹。孩子送进了幼儿教育,政党能够提供部分接济。而他的先生因为不可能理解地用英文与人对话,只能在工地上找了一份体力活,每一日到家都累得直不起腰来。

有了亲戚的陪伴,Y学习起来更有重力了。但与此同时他也心厚爱人的分神的付出,学业再重她也把家务全包了,给先生和少儿做好每一顿饭。最终多个学期时课程不再繁忙,她让老公辞了劳作,给他报了当地的语言培养和磨炼班,然后自身在母校附近找了一份餐厅的小时工。

—说他有心理—

还没毕业的时候,Y就已经起来为回越南社会主义共和国从此的生存与做事先河准备起来。小编本以为,她会在“镀金”之后,到一家大型单位做管理层,没悟出他立刻在谋划慈善的娃儿教室。

Y在新西兰时只顾到地方的体育场地及慈善机构都有为数不少供小孩子读书的书籍及玩具,上边的剧情卓绝又神奇。于是,Y就想在团结的社区里也办一家针对儿童的爱心体育场地。附近的老爸阿妈们只需付出极少极少的花费,就足以借走这几个在本土卖得极贵的英文原版小孩子读物。收取的支出,将被用来教室的平时维护及新书的录取。

Y跟拉各斯教室谈,跟身边的每两个同学朋友谈,在“丁点付出,鼎力帮忙(Give
A
Little)”的网站上发起捐款,还向美利坚合众国YSEALI机构申请了一笔公开的慈善基金。结果是,体育场所同意捐出部分旧版的小孩书籍,互连网捐款能够顶住那第③批书的运费,而YSEALI也批准了她的申请,帮助那几个类型迈出了第贰步。

近年来2回聊天,她告诉作者教室已经筹划完成,已跻身了市集推广的阶段,小编深信不疑她会走得愈加好。

自身接近一向不曾2次性说过哪个人这么多好话,假诺想再而三写下去的话,作者还有为数不少浩大例证,还是可以像剥柠檬草那样把她一斑斑再剥下去。她即便今后早就不在休斯敦了,可是他把最美好的一对留住了本人。作者的手上、衣裳上沾上了冰冷的柠檬草香气,时刻提示着自身决不再依据外表对不熟悉人作出判断。

那么她有没有甚毛病呢?有,正是他不会粤语,导致本身写了那样一篇煽动和挑逗情绪的篇章她都无法看到、读到。

(这一个体系并从未什么样大道理要讲,只是回想起已经生活过的地点,回看起给自家带来心灵慰藉的仇敌与美味的吃食,便想尝试写一些。)

原稿作者:Josh Gabbatiss

The popular image of dung beetles involves them rolling balls of poo
across an African landscape. This is true, but it is not the whole
truth.

蜣螂在大眾印象中,總是在北美洲土地上滾著糞球的模樣。這是事實,但不是事實的方方面面。

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Reputation: Dung beetles roll across the African savannah with big balls
of, well, dung. The ancient Egyptians were really into them, for some
reason.

记念:蜣螂在北美洲草原上滾著,呃……糞球。還有古埃及(Egypt)人出於某種原因對其情有獨鍾。

Reality: From South America to South Africa, the UK to the USA, they
will be there. Not only are dung beetles a diverse and multifaceted
group of insects, they keep our farmland fertile and our pests and
parasites at bay, and even play a part in reducing greenhouse gas
emissions. They do not all eat dung, either.

精神:從澳洲到南非(South Africa)洲,從英國到美國,都足以见到牠們的身影。牠們品種繁多,能幫作者們保持農地的活力和控制害蟲,甚至為下降溫室氣體排泄出了一分力。牠們也並非全体食糞為生。

The dung beetle was an icon in ancient Egypt, adorning temples, jewelry
and texts. It was the symbol of a god who rolled the Sun up over the
horizon each day, just like an enormous ball of dung. To this day, this
is the stereotypical dung beetle, the one made famous by natural history
films – a stocky black insect, trundling along with its smelly ball.

蜣螂在古埃及是偶像,古埃及人用牠們的形象裝飾神廟、珠寶和書籍。古埃及的一個神天天從地平線推起太陽,蜣螂推著巨大糞球的形象刚好與之吻合。現在,蜣螂廣為人知的至死不悟形象來自科学普及電影
—— 一隻矮壯的昆蟲推著發臭的糞球逐步爬行。

“I get that a lot,” says insect ecologist Tomas Roslin at the Swedish
University of Agricultural Sciences, “and then hurry to point out that
there are as many different species of beetles living in dung as there
are, for example, bird species globally”.

“作者常聽到人這樣說”瑞典農業科学和技术大學的昆蟲生態學家汤姆as
Roslin表示,“然後小编會馬上提出,世界上有很多见仁见智品種的甲蟲靠糞便為生,就好像鳥類品種一樣多。”。

The sacred scarab of Egypt is a real animal, but it is just the tip of
the dung heap. Dung beetles can be big or small, adorned with beautiful
colors or horns to fight opponents, and inhabit chilly grasslands or
tropical rainforests. Of the thousands of dung beetle species, only a
fraction actually roll their dung into balls, and many do not eat dung
at all.

埃及(Egypt)聖甲蟲是真實存在的,但只是蜣螂大家庭的中间一員而已。蜣螂有大有小,有的顏色鮮豔、有的長著角來打鬥、有的棲息在冰凉的草原、有的棲息在熱帶雨林。在數千種蜣螂中,唯有局地會把牠們的糞便滾成球,有成都百货上千有史以来不吃糞便。

“With so many different species that exist globally, the differences in
life history are almost endless,” says Trond Larsen, a tropical
ecologist and Director of Conservation International’s Rapid Assessment
Program. “Among the most fascinating dung beetle species are those which
have developed unusual specializations.”

“举世各州有這麼多不一致品種的蜣螂,个中的差別無窮無盡。”保護國際基金會負責人Trond
Larsen代表,“當中最宜人的要數那么些發展出特別技能的品種。”。

Most dung beetles work hard to live up to their name. In their quest for
dung, some species engage in epic kung fu battles on the savannah.
Others take up residence by monkeys’ anuses, so they can hop onto the
dung as it leaves its owner: a perfect example of “ first come, first
serve”.

大部蜣螂努力生存,不負其“屎殼郎”之名。在追尋糞便時,一些品種在熱帶草原參加了摄像《武术甲蟲》。另一对則在猴子的肛門安家落戶,使牠們能首先時間跳到新鮮糞便上——“开首到達、开头服務”的絕佳例子。

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But according to Larsen, it is common to find over 150 distinct dung
beetle species at a single site in the tropics. With this level of
competition for limited quantities of dung, it is hardly surprising that
some have evolved non dung-based diets.

但據Larsen所說,在熱帶地區,同一個地點能找到150多種不一样的蜣螂很经常。在競爭如此能够而糞便有限的情況下,有个别品種進化到不食糞便就平常了。

These diets would still not be to everyone’s taste. Whether it is
carrion, rotting fruit and fungi, or dead invertebrates, dung beetles
seem happy to serve as nature’s bin men, hovering up unpleasant detritus
and waste. One species lives on the backs of giant land snails, sucking
up their mucus while enjoying a free ride.

但牠們的食譜依旧不會符合大眾品味。無論是腐肉、腐果、真菌還是無脊椎動物的屍體,蜣螂好像很樂意成為大自然的垃圾回收員,總是圍著噁心的殘渣垃圾團團轉。有一種蜣螂寄居在大蝸牛背上,搭便車時順便享用蝸牛的黏液。

Perhaps the most fascinating specialists are the dung beetles that have
made the switch from dung to hunting prey.

也許最宜人的特種蜣螂是那2个從食糞轉為捕食獵物的品種。

Predatory dung beetles have long been alluded to in the scientific
literature. One species from Brazil was recorded decapitating large
ants, before leaving their heads behind and rolling the fat abdomens
into an underground lair – as if they were balls of dung.

肉食蜣螂早已在科學文獻中被提及。个中一個巴西的品種曾被紀錄切斷了一隻大螞蟻的頭部,然後丟下頭部而把肥大的肚皮滾進地下洞穴——就像是滾糞球一樣。

Most of all, though, some dung beetles really seem to have it in for
millipedes.

最关键的是,一些蜣螂好像真的喜歡攻擊千足蟲。

Aware of reports that certain beetles attack live millipedes, Larsen
decided to go in search of the killer. After identifying a likely
Peruvian species called Deltochilum valgum, he captured some specimens
to observe their behaviour. “I was amazed to unravel the highly detailed
attack strategies employed by the beetles,” he enthuses. Once again,
decapitation is their favored mode of attack.

留意到有報告指有些蜣螂會攻擊千足蟲,Larsen決定去調查這些殺手。發現一種叫Deltochilum
valgum的秘魯種蜣螂後,他捕捉了部分樣本來觀察牠們的行為。“笔者驚訝地弄明白了這些甲蟲高度細緻的攻擊策略。”他興奮地說。再次證明,“斬首”是牠們最喜愛的攻擊格局。

However, thanks to their family history of eating dung, these beetles
lack the sharp mouthparts commonly found in carnivorous animals.
Instead, they have to improvise.

不过,由於蜣螂家族歷史上長期以糞為食,牠們紧缺肉食動物普遍擁有的鋒利口器。換言之,牠們须要在這方面發揮創意。

“Successful decapitation of millipedes depends on a suite of
morphological adaptations, such as the shape of the hind legs, the
prying ‘teeth’ on the front of the head, and the narrow width of the
head for fitting inside the millipede’s body segments,” says Larsen.
Essentially, the dung beetles slowly prise their unfortunate prey’s body
apart.

“要成功地使千足蟲身首異處须要一整套的形態改變,例如後腿的形狀、頭部前方的捕食“齒”、窄小的頭部以便伸進千足蟲的身體”Larsen說。大體上,蜣螂會把不幸的千足蟲的身體稳步撬開拆解。

Millipedes are commonplace and slow, making them the perfect prey for
these makeshift predators. Larsen reckons the evolutionary leap from
feeding on carrion and dead invertebrates to living millipedes is not
huge, and predicts that other dung beetles will also make the switch.

千足蟲隨處可見而行動遲緩,讓牠們成為了蜣螂這種臨時捕食者的周密獵物。Larsen認為,從以腐肉和無脊椎動物屍體為食到捕食活體千足蟲這種進化上的超过常规不算相当大,並預言别的蜣螂也會實現這種轉變。

Clarke Scholtz, a veteran entomologist at the University of Pretoria in
South Africa, knows a thing or two about dung beetles. He says that
millipede-eaters are also present across the Atlantic, and agrees that
this lifestyle change is actually rather straightforward.

Clarke
Scholtz是1位對蜣螂頗有色金属商讨所究的南非共和国(The Republic of South Africa)比勒陀尼亞大學資深昆蟲學家。他說大西洋對岸也有出現捕食千足蟲的蜣螂,並贊同這種生活習性的改變其實很不难發生。

“Adult dung beetles are not dung feeders in the strictest sense of the
word,” says Scholtz. “They feed on tiny particles of gut epithelium from
whatever it was that produced the dung, bacteria, fungi and tiny
fractions of dung.”

“嚴格意義上講,成年蜣螂並不以糞便為食”
Scholtz說。“牠們的食品是排放器官的細小上皮組織、細菌、真菌和十分的小一些的糞便。”

Meanwhile, carrion-feeding dung beetles, and those feeding on
invertebrates, are slurping on smoothies of juices and insides,
filtering out the nutritious particles just as they would with dung.

與此同時,这么些以腐肉和無脊椎動物屍體為食的蜣螂,津津有味地吸食腐屍的體液和臟器,同時把持有營養的有的過濾出來,就好像牠們處理糞便那樣。

Despite their forays into other foodstuffs, the primary business of the
dung beetle family is still, well, “business”. Whether they roll it
around, bury it or live inside it, these beetles know their way around a
pile of poop, and have done since the time of the dinosaurs.

儘管牠們在食物上有所突破,但蜣螂家族對牠們的“主業”依旧很重視。無論是搓糞球、埋糞球還是住在糞球裏面,這些甲蟲從恐龍時代開始就對處理糞便得心應手了。

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What’s more, while they are not pushing the Sun across the sky, dung
beetles are doing important work.

与此同时,雖然牠們不是在把太陽推上天,蜣螂还是發揮著很关键的意义。

“Dung beetles are an essential part of the ecosystem,” says Bryony Sands
of the University of Bristol, UK. “In my opinion, they are as important
as bees, but because of their unglamorous lifestyle their value is
definitely overlooked.”

“蜣螂是生態系統中必不可少的一部份。” 英國埃德蒙顿爾大學的Bryony
Sands說。“在自个儿看來牠們像蜜蜂一樣首要,只不過不雅的生活習性令牠們的價值被明顯忽視了。”

Faeces are a fact of life, and without an efficient waste disposal
system the world would quickly descend into a swamp of unprocessed
sewage. Dung beetles are that system. “The beetles process the dung by
tunnelling, burying, and fragmenting it,” says Sands. They lay their
eggs in it, their larvae eat it, worms bury it further, and the circle
of dung continues.

糞正是生物的必定產物,假若沒有高效的廢物處理系統,整個世界高速就會變成一個大污水沼澤。蜣螂正是那個系統。“蜣螂通過挖掘、掩埋、分解來處理糞便。”Sands說。牠們在糞中產卵,牠們的幼蟲以此為食,蠕蟲把糞便埋得更深,糞便得到循環利用。

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Schultz puts the situation into perspective. “We have 15 million cattle
in South Africa, and each produces about 12 cow pats per day,” he says.
“That equates to about 5,500 tonnes of dung every day. We would all be
knee deep – or shoulder deep – in it if it wasn’t for dung beetles.” And
that is before we even consider the elephant dung.

Schultz舉例:“南非有1000五百萬頭牛,每頭牛天天差不多排泄12塊牛糞。”他說。“这相當於天天5500噸糞便,假若沒有蜣螂,糞便將會浸沒作者們的膝蓋甚至肩膀。”而這還未算上海高校象的糞便。

“This whole process not only quickly and efficiently removes dung from
the surface, it brings all those important nutrients back down into the
soil, making the soil fertile and our pastures productive,” says
Sands.

“這個過程不單飞速高效地將糞便清理出地表,更把糞便中主要性的營養帶回土壤中,恢復土壤肥力使笔者們的牧場保持高產。”Sands說。

In the UK, which is home to a mere 60 species of dung beetle compared to
South Africa’s 800, the ecosystem services provided by dung beetles
could be saving the cattle industry £367 million each year. Comparable
savings have been estimated in the USA. Not only are dung beetles
boosting pasture fertility, they also disperse seeds, improve soil
structure, and reduce the prevalence of pests and parasites that affect
both humans and livestock.

相較南非共和国的800種蜣螂,英國唯有60種蜣螂,而蜣螂對生態系統的貢獻可以每年為畜牧業節省3億6千7百萬英鎊。美國也有類似的推断數字。蜣螂不止有助增強牧場肥力,也流传種子、改善土壤結構,更能遏制那三个风险人畜的害蟲和寄生蟲。

In a 2016 study, Sands showed that dung beetles reduce the spread of
intestinal worms in cattle. Unfortunately, the anti-worm drugs farmers
give to their cattle come out in their dung, and that is bad news for
the beetles. “This is a bit of a catch-22,” says Sands. “The very
chemicals that farmers are using to treat the gut worms are actually
killing the dung beetles, which would be naturally reducing worm
transmission on pasture, making the problem worse in the long run.”

在一份二零一六年的商量中,Sands提议蜣螂能下跌腸寄生蟲在牛群的傳播。不幸的是,農民餵給牛隻的驅蟲藥隨著糞便排出,這對蜣螂來說是個壞音信。“這有點22條軍規的感覺”Sands說。“事實上農民用來對付寄生蟲的化學藥品正在殺死蜣螂,而本來蜣螂能够自然地降落寄生蟲的傳播。長遠來看用藥會把情況變得更不好。”

Indeed, the tremendous value of dung beetles has not gone unnoticed.
Some pioneering scientists have used them to orchestrate major
ecological changes.

事實上,蜣螂的要害價值並沒有被全然忽視。一些進取的科學家已經使用牠們來促成生態大環境的改變。

The most dramatic instance of dung beetle intervention began in
Australia in the 1960s, when the country was facing a dung disaster.
Native dung beetles were used to the dry, hard dung of marsupials, not
the sloppy pats left by introduced cattle. This led to farmlands covered
with cow dung and bush fly swarms of biblical proportions.

最戲劇性的蜣螂引入事件發生在壹玖伍捌年间的澳大金沙萨(Australia),當時這個國家面臨著糞便的災難。本土蜣螂習慣於有袋動物的乾硬糞便,而不是被引進的牛群的鬆散糞便。這讓農地被牛糞和乔木叢蠅蛆大面積覆蓋。

In a bold move, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organization (CSIRO) established the Australian Dung Beetle Project.
Over two decades, a team introduced 53 species of dung beetles from
around the world. The foreign beetles were able to beat back the tide of
manure, leading to a drop of about 90% in bush fly numbers. As a side
note, it has been argued that the decline in flies has also saved the
country’s outdoor cafés from extinction.

聯邦科學與工業研商中央(CSIRO)決定做一個大膽的舉動,創立“澳大伯尔尼(Australia)蜣螂計劃”。二十年間,一支團隊從满世界引進了53種蜣螂。外來蜣螂搶回了糞肥,讓乔木叢蠅減少了90%。其它,也有人說蒼蠅的減少讓這個國家的戶外咖啡館免於絕跡。

Such was the success of the project that it has been repeated both in
Australia and in neighboring New Zealand, and this is not the final word
on dung beetle interventions. “CSIRO and other Australian and New
Zealand researchers have not concluded their efforts in the dung beetle
space,” says Patrick Gleeson, a research technician at CSIRO. He
mentions a recent application to develop a new, national dung beetle
project.

這個計劃已經在澳大克赖斯特彻奇和紐西蘭相繼成功,而蜣螂的引入並未畫上句號。“CSIRO和别的澳国與紐西蘭的商讨者在蜣螂領域的繼續努力沒有停止。”CSIRO的研商員PatrickGleeson說。他关系一個近期將會實施的,新的全國性蜣螂計劃。

To add to a growing list of dung beetle powers, work by Roslin and his
colleagues has also found evidence that dung beetles can reduce
greenhouse gas emissions.

Roslin和共事的一項研商加強了蜣螂日益增長的影響力,他們發現了蜣螂能減少溫室氣體排泄的證據。

“We are talking fairly big effects, like a reduction of 40% of total
methane emissions from any single dung pat inhabited by beetles,” Roslin
says. “Dung beetle tunnels will serve as ventilation shafts, bringing
oxygen into the pat. That will shift the balance between different
microbes. Methane-producing microbes don’t like oxygen.”

“笔者們說的是相當大的影響,每塊有蜣螂棲息的糞便大致減少了五分二的乙基排泄。”Roslin說。“蜣螂在糞團挖的洞就如通風口一樣,把氧氣帶到糞團中。這會改變糞團裏面微生物環境的平衡,產生加氢苯的微生物不喜歡氧氣。”

When you consider the emissions from an entire food supply chain, Roslin
says, the impact of beetles is relatively small. Nevertheless, this
addition to dung beetles’s CV is yet another reminder of their
significance.

Roslin說,當你考慮整個食品鏈的排放時,蜣螂的影響力顯得相對小部分。但這個蜣螂簡歷上的加分項也讓小编們記得牠們的机要。

In Finland, where Roslin conducted his studies, the tiny beetles are a
far cry from the ostentatious, mouse-sized creatures found in Africa.
But they are still playing their role, epitomizing the biologist E.O.
Wilson’s reference to “the little things that run the world”.

在Roslin做讨论的芬蘭,那么些小蜣螂與亚洲那个老鼠大小的華麗蜣螂相差懸殊,但牠們还是在發揮自个儿的功效。牠們是生物學家E.O.威尔逊口中“維持世界運轉的小東西”的典範。

“Remember, dung beetles are not just something you see struggling with
balls of elephant dung on African savannas,” says Sands. “They are right
here at home on your doorstep, and they need to be looked after!”

“記著,蜣螂不止是你眼中在澳洲草原奮力推著大象糞球的小東西。”Sands說。“牠們就在你家門口,而且供给取得保育!”

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本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转载及用于其它商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由本身负责。本身同意简书平台在接获有关小说权人的文告后,删除文章。

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